How Traditions of Economic Thinking Shape Economic Policies
Prof. Oliver Landmann and Prof. Hans-Helmut Kotz from the University of Freiburg and Prof. Naoki Fukuzawa and Prof. Yasuhiro Doi from the University of Nagoya will investigate ways in which different traditions of economic thinking influence economic policy making and economic policies in the European Union and Japan. Both Europe and Japan are in the course of a still incomplete recovery from the severe global economic crisis of 2008/09. The crisis and its aftermath have sparked intense controversies on the proper response of public policy in many domains, but in particular with regard to monetary, fiscal and social policies. It has long been argued that economic policies are shaped by economic doctrines as much as they reflect the self-interest of politicians and their constituents. This project brings together the expertise of German and Japanese researchers to investigate the influence of economic paradigms on current policy, but also to explain policy controversies in the light of conflicting economic philosophies. In doing so, the research will also explore the historical roots of policy doctrines, harking back both to economic history and doctrinal history. Particular policy areas to be covered comprise the management of Europe’s Monetary and Economic Union, including Europe’s sovereign debt paralysis, the policy experiment of Abenomics in Japan, the challenge of secular stagnation, and the future of the Social Market Economy.
Quantum Information Processing in Non-Markovian quantum Complex systems
Buchleitner (Universität Freiburg) will collaborate with Prof. Francesco Buscemi (Nagoya University) and Prof. Hayashi (Nagoya University). Exploring and exploiting the potential of quantum science for qualitatively new technologies – from quantum sensors and quantum electronics, over quantum computing and quantum telecommunications, to quantum photonics and quantum data mining – is among the most promising endeavors of fundamental research. Yet, this agenda faces one central impediment: quantum phenomena are very well understood and controlled when manipulating individual, isolated quantum systems, while technological devices require the integration of a multitude of components, exhibit a significant level of complexity, and cannot be isolated from uncontrolled environments. To tackle this challenge, the Freiburg-Nagoya consortium collects diverse international expertise from quantum information science, complex and open quantum systems, as well as mathematical physics, with the specific target to design quantum circuit models – paradigms of quantum computation – fit for technological integration. The team joins forces not only from Nagoya University and the University of Freiburg, but also from the University of Milan, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste (Italy), and Hanyang University (Korea). The aim is to initiate a strong research network which serves as a basis for collaborations on a global level, making Nagoya and Freiburg two main hubs for the study of quantum information theory in complex open quantum systems.
SOCIAL GOVERNANCE BY LAW: SUBSTANTIVE STANDARDS AND PROCEDURAL ENFORCEMENT
With the social governance by law and the interplay between substantive legal standards and procedural enforcement the Joint Project Group addresses a topic of both outstanding academic and practical importance. The legal framework is an essential instrument of modern societies under the rule of law to define the standards for the social life of man. The way the governance by law works may vary with the legal system and culture. In the analysis of legal governance instruments the interplay between substantive standards and their procedural enforcement is of central importance. In the pursuit of certain political or social goals a legal system is basically faced with two options: the exertion of influence on the behaviour of its citizens by means of preventive instruments or reactive organization. Preventive instruments are, e.g., prohibition and injunction. Examples of forms of reaction are damages, restitution and punishment.
The relationship of preventive and reactive regulatory instruments is a key element for the analysis and understanding of a legal system. Practically all modern legal systems implement a combination of prevention and reaction. Prevention aims at anticipatory avoidance of unwelcome results, whereas reaction is designed to compensate and maybe deter. On the one hand, a strong emphasis on prevention has the advantage of more immediate governance and risk avoidance. On the other hand it can involve the danger of over-regulation and strangulation of creative innovation. Modern regulation is often based upon preventive governance by creating elective choices and setting incentives. A reduction of preventive regulatory structures in favour of a more reactive legal system gives leeway to freedom of action and flexibility in society that are of import for economic, societal, scientific and cultural capacity for development. By the same token, the cost of such deregulation can be a loss of primary protection of legally guaranteed rights with the individual being referred to compensatory reaction, for example in the form of damages. In this major field the Joint Project aims at comparative and international research with a focus on the Japanese and German legal cultures in their respective international settings, especially in reference to the European Union, the United States of America and Asia.
MULTICOMPONENT SUPRAMOLECULAR CATALYSTS FOR SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS
Chemistry in general and Organic Synthesis in particular is an enabling science, which is in many cases the basis for innovation and development in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry and beyond. The development of an environmentally benign, energy saving, sustainable and cost efficient new quality of organic synthesis is more acute than ever. Catalysis in organic synthesis can be an ideal solution to these problems. Hence, the development of ever more efficient and selective catalysts and catalytic reactions for important synthetic transformations in organic synthesis is at the forefront of molecular sciences and at the heart of this joint research project. Specifically new multicomponent supramolecular catalyst systems shall be developed which tackle so far unsolved reactivity and selectivitiy problems in organic synthesis in order to provide a more sustainable chemical synthesis. Based on this common research project the research groups of Profs. Ooi and Itami at Nagoya University and the group of Prof. Breit at Freiburg University will establish an exchange program for Master and PhD students, which are involved in this project. Additionally, an international symposium shall be organized that will bring together world-leading scientists in the field of multicomponent supramolecular catalyst systems. This collaboration will strengthen the ties between Nagoya University and the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg in particular between the departments of chemistry. Furthermore, it could become the basis for further joint academic projects such as e.g. the establishment of an international research training group cofunded by DFG and JSPS in the future.